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Autism Therapy: toy | Healing Thresholds

Reblogged via Autism Therapy: toy | Healing Thresholds.

Generalized Effects of Video Modeling on Establishing Instructional Stimulus Control in Children with Autism

Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, by Nikopoulos, CK, Canavan C., and Nikopoulou-Smyrni P., published in 2009, summarized Mar 2, 2010

Video modeling may be a useful tool for stopping problem behaviors as well as teaching skills to children with autism.

This study looked to see if video modeling could help children with autism learn to stop what they are doing and clean up a toy. The three children in the study had good classroom behavior even before the study began. Two of the three children were able to generalize from the toy seen in the video to other toys. The third child had the most problem behaviors going into the study and he also had the most trouble learning from the videos. The authors note that videos are good because they can be made for each child to meet the needs of each child.

Establishing Response and Stimulus Classes for Initiating Joint Attention in Children with Autism

Research in Autism Spectrum Disorder, by Jones, EA, published in 2009, summarized Nov 27, 2009

Behavioral therapy may help children with autism learn verbal and nonverbal ways to start a social interaction.

People with autism may have problems initiating (starting) a social interaction. The first step is called “initiating joint attention.” This article describes the way that 3 preschool children with autism were taught these skills. Therapists used behavioral therapy techniques based on Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) theory. For one boy, the therapist used toys that could show a response (e.g., singing stuffed animal or piano with lights). When the boy did the right behavior, the therapist would make the toy react and the boy liked that. For another boy, the therapist used games as a way to teach the skills. The boys learned some of the skills, and eventually were able to use them with their.

Social Training of Autistic Children with Interactive Intelligent Agents

Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, by Barakova, E., Gillessen J., and Feijs L., published in 2009, summarized Jul 30, 2009

Robots and technological toys may help teach social skills to children with autism.

Researchers used special blocks that worked like mini-robots. The blocks changed color depending on which other blocks they were close to. The blocks were used as a therapy tool with twelve children (3-5 years old) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The children were taught specific rules about the blocks. One simpler game focused on interactions between blocks. The second game was more complex and used blocks for symbolic play. Some blocks were “animals” and some were “food” or “water” that children “gave” to animals by moving that block close to the animal block. Pairs of children worked together to make the “zoo” run smoothly. Children needed to learn to pretend a block was an animal or food. Most of the children learned the rules of the first game. Five out of six pairs of children worked well together in the second game. The authors said that if children with autism can understand how to play with a block as if it is food (metaphor), they may be able to learn more complex social skills.

Brief Report: Toward Refinement of a Predictive Behavioral Profile for Treatment Outcome in Children with Autism

Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, by Schreibman, L., Stahmer AC, Barlett VC, and Dufek S., published in 2009, summarized Mar 27, 2009

Future research may allow therapists to know in advance which type of applied behavior analysis (ABA therapy) is most likely to work for any given child with autism.

While many children with autism respond well to ABA therapy, not all children show a good response to all types of ABA therapy. This study of six children was designed to see if it is possible to predict which type of ABA therapy will work for which child with autism. The authors were able to predict which children would respond to pivotal response training, but not which ones would respond to discrete trial training. The authors note that all children were first exposed to pivotal response training and then to discrete trial training and this may have influenced the results. Children who liked toys were more likely to respond to pivotal response training than children who did not like toys.

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